Assignment 3 (DL Week 3)

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Contingency theory; It is an approach that defends that there is no definite "truth" in any institution, organization, company or organizational structure. With a more academic definition, Contingency Theory is a behavioral theory that claims that there is no single best way to design organizational structures. Being able to organize and manage the organization depends on the internal and external situation of a company. The prudent approach to organizational design adapts the company's design to the sources of environmental uncertainties faced by the organization. The important thing is to design an organizational structure in which environmental uncertainties can function effectively and efficiently, so earlier theories such as Weber's bureaucracy theory and Taylor's scientific management approach fail because of the possibility factors of effective management styles and organizational structures in various aspects of the environment. dispute that he was affected. Therefore, there cannot be one of the best organizational designs for each company because no company is completely similar, and each company faces its own unique environmental conditions that lead to its own level of environmental uncertainty.

In this context, important issues for companies are :

1 ) Technology in the organization

2 ) Suppliers and distributors

3 ) Consumer and Customer groups

4 ) Customers and Opponents in the sector

5 ) The government

6 ) Associations and communities

Fiedler's contingency theory is one of the theories that effective leadership depends not only on the style of the leader, but also on its control over a situation. There should be good leader-member relationships, clear goals and procedures, and the ability to demonstrate rewards and punishments for the leader and leader. Lack of these three in the right combination and context will lead to leadership failure. Fiedler designed the scale that determines the least preferred co-worker asking for qualifications that can be attributed to the leader's least-loved worker. - Least preferred co-worker (LPC) –

To summarize outside of this theory, according to the contingency approach, there is no correct and precise way in any organization. Serious uncertainty and unclear conditions will manifest themselves even in the most clear and precise situations. In this context, these uncertainties and problematic situations can be overcome by applying various ways.

Organic and Mechanistic Structures :

The most widely used distinction in revealing the basic features of the organizational structure is its mechanical-organic typology. The most common way to evaluate mechanical-organic structures is to focus on some or all of the structural dimensions specified by Burns and Stalker. Researchers do this by making various immeasurable abstract concepts of certain structural elements such as formalization, centralization, specialization, chain of command and communication channels measurable. However, a limitation is mentioned here; these are the combinations of the dimensions studied differ between studies and the logic behind any combination is not definitely discussed. There is a traditional organizational hierarchy in the mechanical organizational structure. In these structures created to make employees' behaviors predictable and accountable; decision-making authority is centralized, activities are divided into specific areas of expertise, job and job descriptions are clearly defined and detailed in how they do their jobs. Also, subordinates are closely monitored and it is seen that the information flow is provided from bottom to top in a clearly defined hierarchy. Operating in a stationary environment the mechanical organizational structure that shows is similar to a machine and the employees are conceptualized as part of the activities within this machine.

The organic organizational structure is the other end. Working

They are structures representing flexibility, with minimum standardization in their behavior. In order to adapt to changing environmental conditions, decision-making is distributed throughout the hierarchy, there are few written procedures and rules, roles are outlined, and job descriptions based on job expansion are made,

It represents the organizational structures based on collaboration based on the knowledge and skills that individuals have, their communication, the quality of consultation. In a complex environment, employees with different functions work together to respond quickly to problems, so the organization needs a high level of integration so that employees can share information.

Views of Structural Dimensions of Mechanistic and Organic Organization Structures :

Structural criteria of the organization

 

Structural criteria of the organization

Structural criteria of the organization

Organic Organization Structure

Organic Organization Structure

Specific

General

General

Routine

Routine

Control Area

Control Area

Large

Large

Top Regulation

Top Regulation

Number of Stages

Many

Less

Transfer of Authority

Less

Many

Centralization

Many

Less

Source of Authority

Position

Expertise

Specialization (special topics)

Much

Less

Specialization (general

topics)

Less

Much

Formalization

Much

Less

Job Descriptions

Narrow

Large

Business Flexibility

Less

Much

Differentiation

Much

Less

Integration

Difficult

Easy

Integration Method

Command

By connectors

Connectors

Less

Many

Autonomy

Less

Much

Complexity

Less

Much

Department State

Specialized units

Expanded units

Standards

Strict

Flexible

Communication

One Way

Multidirectional

Communication Scope

Command - Report

Suggestion - Advice

Rules and Procedures

Written and formal

Verbal and informal

Manager Rate

Less

Much

Production Personel Rate

Much

Less

 

Organizational Design and Contingency Approach

 

Organizational designs; also change like living objects. The needs of the world direct, determine and shape organizational designs. Technology and popularity always play an important role. Organizational designs accompany with the rapidly changing system.

What are organizational designs?

Organizational designs are actually a large organizational structure that determines how all organizations are designed. There are two theories about organizational design. These; universal approach and contingency approach.

Universal approach;

This is a proposition designed to work in all conditions. The contingency approach suggests that organizational efficiency can be achieved in various ways. Environment, workforce, team spirit and principles shape the design in an unexpected design.

Organizational design and contingency approach; various contingency approach designs try to determine conditions or contingency approach factors. While organizational designs are created;

The strategy of the organization, the environment in which the organization meets, the current technology, how many people the organization consists of, or the social system the organization will work with are analyzed. There are many criteria that form an organizational design formation.

Contingency approach;

It is always usual to encounter unexpected situations. The beginning and ending go through unexpected situation management. The contingency approach is important how you react to external pressures first. The ability to adapt to the changes that occur is always an advantage.

Practical approaches and permanent solutions are essential. The most important in the organizational approach is to have different features.

Advanced members in more than one field produce more comprehensive leaders.

We always think it will be easier to be in order to manage a situation. In fact, it is more correct to manage situations, organizations and problems from the outside.

Because instant approaches are impulsive decisions. Cold bloodedness and common sense are more important for the correctness of the decisions you make.

That’s why, it is always an indispensable rule of crisis management to look at the event as an external eye. This organizational approach is followed in all organizational designs.

What is organizational design?

It is the goal of providing the best and continuous operation for every element existing in the world.

The main purpose of organizational design is to draw the most successful graph for the business it serves.

The most effective and efficient organization is to have a project. To make a division of work correctly and to create an up-to-date team that does not fall back. It is to take advantage and take advantage of specialized people. It is to use the differences continuously and gain ownership. In other words, it consists mainly of division of labor, specialization and differentiation. In organizational designs, managers learn while educating communities.

He has to learn to be educated. This cycle constantly triggers the learning motive of the team and the team leader. It increases development. Since each person's approach to the subject will be different, it creates a difference.

What is the contingency approach?

It is to produce and implement the continuous and best solution in the fastest way possible in unexpected situations. It is the art of placing the solutions produced in advance and at the time of the incident into the event against all the possible negativities.

Sometimes, “it is best not to do anything when there is nothing to do.” It is included in ‘the do's and don'ts’.

It is aimed to best manage the crises that will occur and prior approaches are created. Everyone in their field makes their assessment. In the current situation, whoever will be affected by the crisis, the losses it will take will be minimized. The situation will recover as soon as possible. In the producing group, it continues to operate effectively with new tactics. Leaders gather their teams. Teams support the leader. The best crisis management is destroyed inside. There are groups such as the onset of crises, waiting times, prominence processes, assaults, rescue phases, and restructurings.

During the contingency approach, each of these headings is considered free from emotionality. It has a professional approach. Real actions are exhibited. The problem is eliminated. In order not to repeat, their effects are reduced and a new operation is determined. The new process that has started to be implemented is analyzed and its stages are drawn.

 

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