There are three known theoretical approaches to collaboration ( cooperation ) and competition studies :
- Cognitive – Developmental
- Behavioral Learning
- Social ( Mutual ) Interdependence
The subject that we will be most interested in among these three emerges as Social ( Mutual ) Interdependence. Originally, this theory has emerged as the most researched and produced theory.
There are two types of interdependence: positive and negative. At this point, the positive title indicates cooperation, and the negative title directly indicates competitive dependency. Lack of mutual dependence (social interdependence) reveals individualistic efforts. The main basis of the theory of social interdependence is that the type of interdependence structured in a situation determines how individuals interact with each other and determine the results in the conclusion. In fact, it is possible to examine the effects of the type of social interdependence according to the behavior of individuals, and this is what is really desired.
As positive interdependence progresses in a way that individuals continually encourage and support each other's efforts, the result shows a tendency to stimulate interaction and result. On the other hand, negative interdependence (negative) progresses in a way that individuals prevent or restrict each other's efforts, resulting in opposite interaction in the conclusion part. If there is no mutual dependency, then no interaction is expected in this case. There is no interaction in the conclusion. When looking at all of the multi-disciplinary studies, hundreds of projects and a large number of works, it is observed that collaborative ( cooperative ) and cooperative studies result in much higher success and productivity than studies that require individual and opposite addiction. In addition, it is observed that interpersonal relationships are much more positive and have a tendency to give better results in terms of psychological human health. Finally, another important issue to be mentioned is that it can be observed that efforts, called competitive, and which are carried out individually, lead to constructive results depending on the situation. This situation may vary depending on external conditions and independent conditions.
So what ways / methods can we use to manage competitive interdependence?
The following main strategies can be used to manage competitive addiction :
Collusion and Cartel : Given the dictionary meaning of the cartel, it means unity that independent companies or firms establish to gain more profits and create a big profit pool, or to weaken the power of other competing businesses and drop them from the market. In short, it is the monopolization of the companies operating in the same field. In general terms, it is undesirable, but it can be used to deal with competitive interdependence and to better manage the process. Such agreements are generally tried to be prevented by governments. At this point, it is aimed to spread the competition within the country by not allowing the companies that aim to monopolize and attract all the earnings to them.
On the other hand, when looking at the secret agreement, the main thing among competitors, as can be seen in different industries, is the secret agreements made to share information with a fraudulent or illegal (illegal) purpose. The said organization is hidden in order to hide no competition. This situation is hidden from the government in a general context. The main difference between cartels and secret deals can be explained as the fact that one is being made publicly and that another must be conducted secretly.
A third – party linkage mechanism : It is known as a more formal but still indirect way for competing organizations or firms to coordinate their activities. An association-like regulatory structure represents the relevant companies of the same industry and allows competitors to know, compare and exchange information. These association or union-like structures are called - the third - party linkage mechanism –
Strategic Alliances : Strategic alliances might be actively used to manage not only symbiotic developing commitments, but also competitive interdependences. While competitors (firms) compete for customers when their final products enter the market, they can collaborate and create a joint venture to develop a common technology that will save them from spending a lot of money. Although this is one of the most preferred methods, it is shown as one of the most effective ways for companies to deal with competitive interdependence.
Mergers And Takeovers : Mergers and takeovers can increase the competitiveness of a company and are observed to increase in general. Increasing this competitiveness in general is to increase the ability to create a wide range of products in order to provide better and caliber service to more customers and to improve the scope of this product variety. In summary, merger and takeover decisions can be made in order to deliver the products or services offered to customers with a wider variety and to different audiences.